Supported by research, Marzano developed Nine Essential Instructional Resources that will improve student achievement across all curriculums.
His strategies, detailed in Classroom Instruction That Works, are listed below in order of impact on student achievement:
1. Identifying similarities and differences
2. Summarizing and note taking
3. Reinforcing effort and providing recognition
4. Homework and practice
5. Nonlinguistic representations
6. Cooperative learning
7. Setting objectives and providing feedback
8. Generating and testing hypotheses
9. Cues, questions, and advance organizers
Listed below, are some examples of useful Marzano Strategies. For further information about Marzano's Nine Effective Teaching Strategies, visit http://www.tltguide.ccsd.k12.co.us/instructional_tools/Strategies/Strategies.html
The following sample is a graphic organizer worksheet modeling how to solve two-step equations. By utilizing nonlinguistic representations such as this, the teacher can appeal to visual learners by incorpoating words and images through symbols that represent relationships. This strategy organizes the steps to solving for x in multi-step equations by separating each operation into individual boxes. Students can trace the formation of the equation and the operation reversal as they solve.
Modeling Two-Step Equations
Spence, D. (Director) (2009, January 21). Multi-step equations. Math 3116, Dianna Spence, NGCSU, Dahlonega.
Connection to GPS:
M7A2 Students will understand and apply linear equations in one variable.
a. Given a problem, define a variable, write an equation, solve the equation, and
interpret the solution.
b. Use the addition and multiplication properties of equality to solve one- and
two-step linear equations.
The second available strategy also employs nonlinguistic representation as a means to make connections between ideas. This graphic organizer is centered around one broad topic and requires students to classify ideas or objects that belong to that topic. The organizer then requires students to provide characteristics of each object. Similarities or differences between each object can then be recognized. Teachers can adapt this strategy for numerous math topics, including: types of equations, types of angles, types of polygons, etc.
The example provided classifies types of triangles.
Classifying Types of Triangles
Math graphic organizer printouts - EnchantedLearning.com. (n.d.). Retrieved April 15, 2009, from http://www.enchantedlearning.com/graphicorganizers/math/
Connection to GPS:
M8G2. Students will understand and use the Pythagorean theorem.
a. Apply properties of right triangles, including the Pythagorean theorem.
b. Recognize and interpret the Pythagorean theorem as a statement about areas of
squares on the sides of a right triangle.